There is nothing "deterministic" about biological--or
even genetic--explanations for violence, since biology is
always affected by experience and context, including prenatal
experience. There is no evidence for biological differences
between races on measures of aggressiveness, and biologists
studying aggression are examining structures and processes
shared by all humans. We need to know more about how brain
systems involved with aggression develop at critical periods
in infancy and childhood, as well as more about the phenomenon
of permanent neurological changes after long-term victimization,
which has implications for victims of child abuse as well
as those suffering post-traumatic stress disorder. Neuroscientists
are now engaged in relating the many brain areas and functions
involved in the range of complex behaviors we call "aggression,"
and will someday be able to suggest therapies for particular
problems which contribute to violent behavior in some people.