THE HFG REVIEW OF RESEARCH (Vol. 4, No. 1, Spring 2000)
TEACHING ABOUT VIOLENCE

Violence
Robert Jackall

Robert Jackall is Class of 1956 Professor of Sociology and Social Thought at Williams College and the author of Wild Cowboys: Urban Marauders & the Forces of Order (Harvard University Press, 1997). He is an HFG grantee.

This course introduces undergraduate students to the study of violence and aggression from a liberal-arts perspective. It offers a historically grounded, multidisciplinary curriculum, one that fully integrates perspectives from the humanities and the natural and social sciences. Its principal aim is to provide future men and women of affairs with broad historical and comparative frameworks within which they can begin to understand violence and its many meanings.

The phenomenon of violence deserves such a broad-based, sustained scrutiny because of its central place in human social life and culture. But for a variety of reasons, the approach to the study of violence has generally been more limited. Despite the fascination with violence evinced in humankind's ages-long representation of violent themes in art and literature, it is a phenomenon that men and women often find so disturbing that they ignore it until it bursts human relationships and social order itself. Then violence pleads for immediate solutions. But the press for practical policy remedies to curb or contain violence, freighted inevitably with moral appeals and legal sanctions, blurs a comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon on its own terms. Moreover, the types, origins, and meanings of violence are extraordinarily diverse. Yet policy studies typically focus attention on narrow areas, almost always the most pressing concerns of the moment, to the neglect of other, equally important areas and often to the detriment of the accumulation of knowledge or the careful evaluation of historical experience that alone can provide deep understanding. In brief, violence itself so shocks human sensibilities that it induces, first, a kind of forgetfulness and, second, a blindered focus on problems at hand.

The liberal-arts perspective of this curriculum attempts to address these limitations. It seeks to teach students the habits of mind necessary to locate types of violence historically and to enter into alien subjective worlds to discern the meanings of violence to those who commit it and to those who suffer its consequences. Thus, the course is principally rooted in the social sciences, particularly sociology, anthropology, politics, and social psychology. But from its start, the course also exposes students to scientific inquiries in ethology, biology, and sociobiology about the primal roots of human violence, to philosophical perspectives on violence, and to reflections on humankind's fascination with violence.

The core of the course covers some key types and meanings of violence. It examines, first, institutionalized and ideological violence. It explores the meaning of war to warriors in different epochs and types of conflicts, including the catastrophic Roman loss to the Carthaginians at Cannae, the heroism of the self-immolating Japanese kamikaze, the terror and excitement of trench warfare as seen by German soldiers in the First World War, the meaning of bravery and cowardice among Americans in the Second World War, and the sexually charged imagery of front-line soldiers' reports of different conflicts. It examines the twentieth-century phenomenon of industrialized violence, focusing in particular on Nazi genocide during the Second World War and the American use of nuclear weapons against Japan. It analyzes ethnic and racial savagery from Rwanda to Sri Lanka to the United States. It looks at religiously grounded violence from the crusades and inquisitions of the middle ages to totalistic cults today. And it surveys political violence both by rulers and by subjects in revolt, from ancient Rome, to the French Revolution, to the contemporary United States, as well as the works of classical social thinkers who extol violence, such as Marx and Sorel.

Second, the course looks at some types of interpersonal violence. It explores notions of honor and the violence that emerges from the intricate meanings that human beings attach to the notion, from the world of the Iliad to the American southland. It focuses on antagonisms between the sexes, such as those in the Agamemnon, where the bitter disagreement between a man and woman about whether public duty or kin ties hold sway leads to horrifying domestic violence. The course also pays particular attention to males' violent fantasies and the role that women play in them. And it assesses different types of self-destruction, the inverse of externally directed violence.

Third, the course examines the world of criminal violence, from violence that emerges out of profound psychological disturbance, such as that described by Dostoyevsky in Crime and Punishment, to calculated occupational violence such as that endemic to the drug trade in the United States, to criminal violence in wartime. It also examines the extraordinarily rationalized punishment of such violence.

Finally, the course looks at the forces of order and peace. It explores the social structure and culture of traditionally peaceful societies. It examines the heroic actions of individuals and groups who resist oppressive social orders. It analyzes the efficacy of moral exhortation and nonviolent civil disobedience to protest and change perceived injustice. It probes the use of force and the threat of force to curtail violence. And it concludes with an appraisal of the importance of the key institutions of law and bureaucracy in underpinning the search for tolerable compromises.

Such a liberal-arts framework arms students for participation in the world of affairs. A deep understanding of the repeated patterns of human violence across epochs and societies tempers easy optimism about the efficacy of policies to remedy violence in general or even particular forms of violence. At the same time, liberal-arts attention to history, biography, social structure, and culture provides insights into human motivations for violence and its facilitating institutions that can spark the right questions, push inquiry in fruitful directions, and suggest ameliorative actions.

A Guide to the Syllabus

Rationale and Organization | Although this course can stand on its own as an introduction to studies on violence, it is also designed to serve as a foundation for subsequent courses as part of a "cluster" of courses on violence. The course assumes a 14-week semester, with meetings twice a week, for a total of 28 classes. These are numbered consecutively. The readings are organized by class numbers (1-26), with readings ordered within a class according to the syllabus. There are no readings assigned for the final (27-28) classes. The reading list is ambitious and designed for superior students. There is an abundance of readings and perspectives provided. Instructors should tailor the readings as they see fit.

Discussion Points | The course is meant to proceed through a combination of lectures and discussions. The discussion points for each section posed below are meant only as general guides. Depending on instructors' and students' interests, each section can take a number of different directions.

Part I: The Primal Roots of Violence

The course begins with a consideration of violence in animals and with a look at the connection between human biology and violence.

Class 1: Are violence and aggression inextricable parts of non-human animals' biological make-up? How strong are the arguments made by Wrangham and Peterson and Lorenz for biological predisposition toward violence among primates and other animals higher on the evolutionary scale? What cautions do the materials from de Waal pose to the theses of Wrangham and Peterson and Lorenz?

Class 2: Are human beings captive to genetically determined neurobiological forces that shape their predispositions toward violence? How strong are the arguments offered by authors in the Masters and McGuire volume to substantiate the thesis that neurotransmitters, like serotonin, definitively shape human behavior in regard to violence? What is your appraisal of the overview offered by Miczek et al. for the importance of biological influences on violence?

Part II: Understanding the Universality of Violence and the Fascination with Violence

This section aims to provide a broad overview of different approaches to considering violence.

Class 3: What are the philosophical and political assumptions behind Arendt's essay on violence? Delineate them and provide a critical analysis of her thinking.

Class 4: Assess Weber's argument that modern societies are, ultimately, held together by force. Comment as well on his distinctions between the ethics of ultimate ends and the ethics of responsibility or consequences. What is "meaning" from a sociological perspective? What can we learn about violence from the representations of violence as suggested in the readings in the volume edited by Howlett and Mengham, and in Fraser? What accounts for the fascination with violence throughout human history?

Part III: Types and Meanings of Violence

This three-fold section has two purposes. First, it provides a broad typology of important kinds of violence. Second, within each general type, it offers a range of materials to stimulate discussion about the extraordinary range of meanings that violence has in different societies and in different historical contexts.

Institutionalized and Ideological Violence

Classes 5 & 6: From the readings presented here, delineate the range of subjective meanings of violence to warriors in different historical and social contexts. In particular, how does ancient and traditional warfare differ from that in medieval times from the perspective of the warrior? How do both differ from modern warfare? According to Jünger and Gray, what are the appeals of battle? Against the backdrop of the readings from Theweleit and Broyles, assess the following proposition: War represents for men the consummate arena in which to define male identity.

Class 7: What are the special characteristics of civil war? How do civil wars differ from other wars in their meanings for warriors?

Class 8: What are the characteristics of industrialized violence? How does it differ from the violence of warriors? What is the meaning of such violence to its participants, both perpetrators and victims? What are some of the larger sociocultural meanings of such violence for Western civilization?

Classes 9 & 10: What are the characteristics of racial and ethnic violence? How does it differ from the violence of warriors and industrialized violence? Construct a range of types of ethnic and racial violence. Are there differences across these types in the extent and degree of violence? If so, what accounts for these differences? At what point does racial and ethnic violence become "genocidal?" What characterizes such violence in the minds of those committing it? Comment on the nature of symbolic ethnic/racial violence, as in Mazon's work. What are the characteristics of pogroms?

Classes 11 & 12: What are the characteristics of violence rooted in otherworldly orientations? Working with the materials provided, describe the worldview of those engaged in holy wars. Describe the worldview of the religiously motivated inquisitor. Finally, describe the worldview of those engaged in millenarian religious sects.

Class 13: Marx and Engels, Fanon, and Sorel each present different, though related, political ideologies justifying violence. Analyze and assess each of these ideologies. Comment in particular on the notion, found in all three selections, that violence purifies the social structure. Comment on the nature and meanings of violence during popular uprisings as described by Rudé and Froissart.

Class 14: How do assassination and terrorism affect societies, ancient and modern? What social and institutional factors account for the rates of political murder, or attempted political murder, in modern societies?

Class 15: What psychological characteristics do despots, ancient and modern, seem to share? What social structural differences make modern despots more fearsome than those in ancient times? Compare the reigns of terror of Stalin and Robespierre both from their own perspectives and from those of their victims.

Interpersonal Violence

Classes 16 & 17: Describe in detail the wrath of Achilles and its genesis in the Greeks' conception of personal honor. What are some of the other meanings of honor that guide people's social behavior, especially in relation to violence? What are the particular attributes of the American South's culture of honor?

Class 18: What are the roots of Clytaemestra's rage against Agamemnon? Is it rooted in her rejection of his conception of public duty and his sacrifice of their daughter Iphegenia to appease the gods? Or is she simply an agent of the gods to fulfil the ancient blood debt between Agamemnon and her lover, Aegisthus? What, according to Lefkowitz, were the meanings of seduction and rape for the Greeks? How do such conceptions of the relationship between the sexes compare with those documented by Gregor in the Amazon? Analyze the use of rape, as documented by Murphy, and genital circumcision, as seen in Lightfoot-Klein, as part of systems of social control. What are typically the precipitating causes of violence by women? What are the patterns of violence against women in the United States?

Class 19: What are the types and characteristics of suicide as analyzed by Durkheim? What, according to Durkheim, is the relationship between integration into social structures and self-destructiveness? What roles do different religions play in effecting or not effecting such integration? Contrast the kind of suicide described by Alvarez with that described by Seward.

Criminal Violence

Class 20: What is the ethos of street criminal violence as described by Katz and Jackall? Compare this ethos with the ethos of early nineteenth-century criminals in England described by Rudé. Comment on Dostoyevsky's famous portrait of obsessive criminal violence. How much contemporary criminal violence is rooted in such irrationality and how much stems from rational occupational orientations?

Class 21: In what sense is the behavior of Adolf Eichmann, of soldiers in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia, and of soldiers at Son My "criminal?" What light does the notion of "war crimes" shed on our conceptions of street criminal behavior?

Class 22: Contrast the nature and meaning of punishment in ancient Rome and in the Florentine Renaissance. Why was punishment such an important subject of artistic representation during the Renaissance? Comment on the notion of moral retribution as an aspect of punishment for criminal misdeeds. Consider the problem of torture from several angles. What is the purpose of most torture from the perspective of the torturer? How do victims experience torture? Finally, many people make the moral argument that punishment itself is "criminal." Make the argument for that position using Lewin's Bandiet as your case-in-point.

Part IV: Forces of Order and Peace

This section explores the social-structural roots of societies with little violence. It examines the roots of personal and social resistance to authority considered illegitimate. It also explores the role of force in preventing or minimizing violence, and the institutional bases of modern societies that necessitate and ground compromise between inevitably opposing interests.

Class 23: What are the social-structural characteristics of peaceful traditional societies? How important are rituals and symbols of peace in maintaining such societies? How do such societies cultivate valued self-images of peacefulness, cooperation, and nonviolence? How do such societies allocate and control power and authority, linchpins of all institutional structures?

Class 24: Analyze Franz Jagerstätter's heroic resistance to Nazi rule. What exactly were his motivations? On what inner strengths did he draw while socially isolated? What are the philosophical and moral bases of nonviolent resistance to authority or laws that one considers illegitimate? What are the practicalities of nonviolent action? With the materials provided, compare nonviolent movements in Europe and the United States.

Class 25: What roles do the use of force or the threat of force play in preventing violence and maintaining domestic and international order? Discuss the role of police in preventing criminal violence in modern society. Using Smith's account, analyze the failure of the United Nations to stop Idi Amin's savagery inside Uganda and the legitimacy of Tanzania's invasion of that country to depose Amin. Discuss the importance of the credible threat of force in resolving the Cuban missile crisis.

Class 26: What roles do law and bureaucracy play in the prevention and containment of violence in modern societies? How do law and its bureaucratically organized administration unintentionally lay the groundwork for some kinds of violence? Discuss the image of modern society delineated in Weber's essay on "Religious Rejections of the World and their Directions." In particular, how do we maintain a civil public order given the social-structural and experiential centrifugality that, Weber argues, marks modern bureaucratic societies? How do pluralistic societies achieve and maintain tolerable compromises?

Part V: Conclusion

Throughout the course, instructors should note the major points of student interest and use the last two classes to draw them together.

Classes 27 & 28: Against the backdrop of the materials considered in the course, construct a conceptual continuum of the types and meanings of violence in contemporary society. What accounts for American society's fascination with violence?

 

Violence: An Introductory Curriculum
*Arabic numerals refer to individual class sessions

Part I: The Primal Roots of Violence

1. Animals and Violence*
2. Human Biology and Violence

Part II: Understanding the Universality of and Fascination with Violence

3. Philosophy and Politics
4. Social Science, the Humanities, and Representations of Violence

Part III: Types and Meanings of Violence

A. Institutionalized and Ideological Violence

5. War and Warriors 1
6. War and Warriors 2
7. Civil War
8. Industrialized Violence
9. Ethnic and Racial Savagery 1
10. Ethnic and Racial Savagery 2
11. In the Name of God 1
12. In the Name of God 2
13. Political Violence
14. Political Murder
15. The Violence of Despots

B. Interpersonal Violence

16. Honor and Violence 1
17. Honor and Violence 2
18. Antagonisms Between the Sexes
19. Self-Destructiveness

C. Criminal Violence

20. Criminal Violence 1
21. Criminal Violence 2
22. Punishment

Part IV: Forces of Order and Peace

23. Peaceful Traditional Societies
24. Heroic Dissent, Moral Exhortation, and Nonviolence
25. The Use of Force and the Threat of Force
26. Law, Bureaucracy, and the Search for Tolerable Compromises

Part V: Conclusion

27. Reflections on Violence and the Human Condition 1
28. Reflections on Violence and the Human Condition 2

 

Part I: The Primal Roots of Violence

1. Animals and Violence

- Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson, "Paradise Lost," "Relationship Violence," "The Price of Freedom," and "Legacies." Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1996), 5-27, 127-152, 153-172, 173-199, and notes.
- Konrad Lorenz, "What Aggression is Good For," "The Spontaneity of Aggression," "Behavioral Analogies to Morality," and "Ecce Homo!" On Aggression, trans. Marjorie Kerr Wilson (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1963), 23-48, 49-57, 23-48, 109-138, 236-274.
- Frans de Waal, "Chimpanzees." Peacemaking Among Primates (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989), 34-87.

2. Human Biology and Violence

- Roger D. Masters, "Why Study Serotonin, Social Behavior, and the Law?"; Douglas Madsen, "Serotonin and Social Rank Among Human Males"; C. Ray Jeffery, "The Brain, the Law, and the Medicalization of Crime." In The Neurotransmitter Revolution: Serotonin, Social Behavior, and the Law, ed. Roger D. Masters and Michael T. McGuire (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1994), 3-16, 146-158, 161-178.
- Klaus A. Miczek et al., "An Overview of Biological Influences on Violent Behavior." In Understanding and Preventing Violence, vol. 2: Biobehavioral Influences, ed. Albert J. Reiss, Jr., Klaus A. Miczek, and Jeffrey A. Roth (Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press, 1994), 1-20.

Part II: Understanding the Universality of and Fascination with Violence

3. Philosophy and Politics

- Hannah Arendt. On Violence (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969).

4. Social Science, the Humanities, and Representations of Violence

- Max Weber, "Politics as a Vocation." From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, trans. and ed. H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946), 77-128, and notes.
- David Forgacs, "Fascism, Violence and Modernity"; Michael Minden, "Expressionism and the First World War"; Richard Cork, "Images of Extinction: Paul Nash at the Western Front"; Alison Sinclair, "Disasters of War: Image and Experience in Spain." In The Violent Muse: Violence and the Artistic Imagination in Europe, 1910-1939, ed. Jana Howlett and Rod Mengham (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994), 5-21, 45-55, 56-64, 77-87, and notes.
- John Fraser, "Introductory," "Ambivalences," and "Concluding." Violence in the Arts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974), 1-13, 14-39, 152-162, and notes.
- Allen Guttmann, "The Appeal of Violent Sports"; Maria Tatar, "'Violent Delights' in Children's Literature"; J. Hoberman, "'A Test for the Individual Viewer': Bonnie and Clyde's Violent Reception." In Why We Watch: The Attractions of Violent Entertainment, ed. Jeffrey Goldstein (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 7-26, 69-87, 116-143, and references 227-253.

Part III: Types and Meanings of Violence

A. Institutionalized and Ideological Violence

5. War and Warriors 1

- Livy, "Cannae." Book XXII, The War with Hannibal: Books XXI-XXX of The History of Rome From Its Foundation, trans. Aubrey de Sélincourt (New York: Penguin Books, 1965), 143-165.
- Paul Varley, "Rise of the Samurai." Samurai (New York: Delacorte, 1970), 47-68, chronology, and map.
- Ivan Morris, "If Only We Might Fall . . . : The Kamikaze Fighters." The Nobility of Failure: Tragic Heroes in the History of Japan (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975), 276-334 and notes.

6. War and Warriors 2

- Ernst Jünger, "Author's Preface to the English Edition," "Orainville," "Les Eparges," "Guillemont," "The Battle of Cambrai," "The Great Offensive," and "My Last Storm." The Storm of Steel: From the Diary of a German Storm-Troop Officer on the Western Front (New York: Howard Fertig, 1975), ix-xiii; 1, 19-30, 104-110, 221-237, 244-280, 300-319.
- J. Glenn Gray, "The Enduring Appeals of Battle," "The Soldier's Relations to Death," and "Images of the Enemy." The Warriors: Reflections on Men in Battle (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1970), 25-58, 97-129; 131-169.
- Michelle Z. Rosaldo, "Headhunting: a Tale of 'Fathers,' 'Brothers,' and 'Sons.'" Knowledge and Passion: Ilongot Notions of Self and Social Life (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980), 137-176 and notes.
- Klaus Theweleit, "Men and Women." Male Fantasies, vol. 1:Women, Floods, Bodies, History, trans. Stephen Conway (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987), 3-84, 171-204, and notes.
- William Broyles, Jr., "Why Men Love War." Esquire (November 1984), 55-65.

7. Civil War

- Eric Carlton, "Massacre as Fratricide: The Spanish Civil War." Massacres: An Historical Perspective (Cambridge: Scolar Press, 1994), 97-106.
- Speer Morgan and Greg Michalson, editors, "The [American] Civil War Diary of George Sargent." For Our Beloved Country (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1994), 79-174.

8. Industrialized Violence

- Jean Claude Pressac with Robert-Jan Van Pelt, "The Machinery of Mass Murder at Auschwitz"; Andrzej Strzelecki, "The Plunder of Victims and Their Corpses." In Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, ed. Yisrael Gutman and Michael Berenbaum (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994), 183-245, 246-266.
- Omer Bartov, "Intellectuals on Auschwitz: Memory, History, and Truth." Murder in Our Midst: the Holocaust, Industrial Killing, and Representation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 115-136 and notes.
- John Hersey. Hiroshima (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946).

9. Ethnic and Racial Savagery 1

- Gérard Prunier, "Rwandese Society and the Colonial Impact: The Making of a Cultural Mythology (1894-1959)" and "Genocide and Renewed War." The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), 1-40, 237-268.
- Fergal Keane, "Bloodlines," "Killers," and "A Chronology of Genocide." Season of Blood: a Rwandan Journey (New York: The Viking Press, 1995), 1-30, 161-183, 193-198.
- Leo Kuper, "The Genocidal State: An Overview." In State Violence and Ethnicity, ed. Pierre L. van den Berghe (Boulder, Col.: University Press of Colorado, 1990), 19-51.
- S. J. Tambiah, "The Horror Story" and "Reflections on Political Violence in Our Time." Sri Lanka: Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 19-33, 114-128, and notes.

10. Ethnic and Racial Savagery 2

- Captain Frederick Marryat, "Lynch Law.." Diary in America, with Remarks on Its Institutions (New York: Wm. H. Colyer, 1839), 240-247.
- Durward Pruden, "A Sociological Study of a Texas Lynching." Studies in Sociology, vol. 1, 1 (1936), 3-9.
- Mauricio Mazón, "Introduction," "The Zoot-Suit Riots," and "The Symbols, Imagery, and Rhetoric of the Riots." The Zoot-Suit Riots: The Psychology of Symbolic Annihilation (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992), 1-6, 67-77, 78-94, and notes.
- Leonidas E. Hill, "The Pogrom of November 9-10, 1938 in Germany." In Riots and Pogroms, ed. Paul R. Brass (New York: New York University Press, 1996), 89-113.

11. In the Name of God 1

- Maurice Bloch, "Sacrifice." Prey Into Hunter: The Politics of Religious Experience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 24-45 and notes.
- Joshua Prawer, "The Crusade." The World of the Crusaders (London: Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1972), 14-27.
- Henry Charles Lea, "The Inquisitional Process" and "The Stake." A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1888), 405-429, 534-561.

12. In the Name of God 2

- Ken Levi, "A Brief Chronology of Jim Jones and the People's Temple"; John R. Hall, "The Apocalypse at Jonestown"; Jeannie Mills, "Jonestown Masada." In Violence and Religious Commitment: The Implications of Jim Jones's People's Temple Movement, ed. Ken Levi (University Park, Md.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1982), xi-xv, 35-54, 165-173, and notes.
- Dick Anthony and Thomas Robbins, "Religious Totalism, Exemplary Dualism, and the Waco Tragedy." In Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem: Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements, ed. Thomas Robbins and Susan J. Palmer (New York: Routledge, 1997), 261-284.

13. Political Violence

- Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. The Communist Manifesto (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).
- Frantz Fanon, "Concerning Violence." The Wretched of the Earth, trans. Constance Farrington (New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1963), 35-106.
- Georges Sorel, "The Ethics of Violence." Reflections on Violence, trans. T. E. Hulme (New York: B.W. Huebsch, 1912), 205-251.
- George Rudé, "The Fall of the Bastille, 14 July 1789." Paris and London in the Eighteenth Century: Studies in Popular Protest (New York: Viking, 1971), 82-95.
- George Rudé, "The Pattern of Disturbance and the Behavior of Crowds." The Crowd in History: A Study of Popular Disturbances in France and England, 1730-1848 (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1964), 237-258.
- Jean Froissart, "The Peasants' Revolt in England (1381)." Chronicles, trans. Geoffrey Brereton (New York: Penguin Books, 1968), 211-230 and notes.

14. Political Murder

- Naphtali Lewis, prefatory material and "The Victim: From Pharsalus to the Ides of March, [48-44 BC]." The Ides of March (Sanibel and Toronto: Samuel Stevens & Co., 1985), 39-87 and notes.
- Franklin L. Ford, "[Political Murders in] Recent Times." Political Murder: From Tyrannicide to Terrorism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995), 299-336 and notes.
- James F. Kirkham, Sheldon G. Levy, and William J. Crotty, "Deadly Attacks on Public Office Holders in the United States" and "Political Violence in the United States." Assassination and Political Violence: A Report to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, vol. 8 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1969), 9-47, 171-241.
- Joseph Bensman, "Social and Institutional Factors Determining the Level of Violence and Political Assassination in the Operation of Society: A Theoretical Discussion." Assassinations and the Political Order, ed. William J. Crotty (New York: Harper & Row, 1972), 345-388.

15. The Violence of Despots

- Tacitus, "The Reign of Terror," "Nero and his Helpers," and "The Burning of Rome." The Annals of Imperial Rome, trans. Michael Grant (New York: Penguin Books, 1956), 198-227, 320-344, 360-367.
- Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, "Gaius (Caligula)." The Twelve Caesars, trans. Robert Graves (New York: Penguin, 1957), 153-184.
- J. M. Thompson, "The Inquisitor." Robespierre, vol. 2: From the Death of Louis XVI to the Death of Robespierre (New York: Howard Fertig, 1968), 144-184.
- Isaac Deutscher, "The Gods Are Athirst." Stalin: A Political Biography (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969), 345-385.

B. Interpersonal Violence

16. Honor and Violence 1

- Homer, "Book I: The Quarrel," "Book XVI: Hector Kills Patroclus," "Book XIX: The Reconciliation," "Book XX: God Fights God," "Book XXI: Achilles at the Ford," "Book XXII: Death of Hector." Iliad, trans. Robert Graves (London: Cassell, 1959), 1-16, 229-247, 278-286, 287-296, 297-310, 311-321.
- William Ian Miller, "Getting a Fix on Violence." Humiliation and Other Essays on Honor, Social Discomfort, and Violence (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993), 53-92 and notes.

17. Honor and Violence 2

- Bertram Wyatt-Brown, "Honor in Literary Perspective," "The Nature of Primal Honor," and "Sexual Honor, Exploitation, and Shame." Honor and Violence in the Old South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 3-24, 25-39, 85-115, and notes.
- Dickson D. Bruce, Jr., "Militarism and Violence," "Violence and Southern Oratory." Violence and Culture in the Antebellum South (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979), 161-177, 178-195, and notes.

18. Antagonisms between the Sexes

- Aeschylus, "Agamemnon." Oresteia, trans. Richmond Lattimore (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953), 33-90.
- Mary R. Lefkowitz, "Seduction and Rape in Greek Myth." In Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, ed. Angeliki E. Laiou (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1993), 17-37.
- Thomas Gregor, "Gender Wars: The Ritual of the Pequi Harvest," "Anxious Pleasures," and "Anxious Dreams." Anxious Pleasures: The Sexual Lives of an Amazonian People (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1985), 117-130, 131-151, 152-161.
- Robert F. Murphy, "Social Structure and Sex Antagonism." Journal of Anthropological Research 42 (1986), 407-416.
- Hanny Lightfoot-Klein, "Episodes and Conversations." Prisoners of Ritual: An Odyssey into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa (New York: Haworth, 1989), 103-165.
- Patricia Pearson, "Medea in Her Modern Guise: The Use of Children as Pawns," "Balancing the Domestic Equation: When Women Assault Their Spouses or Lovers," and "What's Love Got to Do with It?: Women as Partners in Violent Crime." When She Was Bad: Violent Women & the Myth of Innocence (New York: Viking, 1997), 92-113, 114-145, 176-200, and notes.
- Ronet Bachman. Violence Against Women: A National Crime Victimization Survey Report, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, January 1994.

19. Self-Destructiveness

- Emile Durkheim, "Individual Forms of the Different Types of Suicide." Suicide: A Study in Sociology, trans. John A. Spaulding and George Simpson (Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press, 1951), 277-294.
- Alfred Alvarez, "Epilogue: Letting Go." The Savage God: A Study of Suicide (New York: Random House, 1970), 267-284.
- Jack Seward, "Seppuku Defined." Hara-Kiri: Japanese Ritual Suicide (Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle, 1968), 13-22.

C. Criminal Violence

20. Criminal Violence 1

- Jack Katz, "Doing Stickup." Seductions of Crime: Moral and Sensual Attractions in Doing Evil (New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1988), 164-194 and notes.
- Robert Jackall, "Uptown Murders." Wild Cowboys: Urban Marauders & the Forces of Order (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997), 101-126 and notes.
- George Rudé, "Criminals." Criminal and Victim: Crime and Society in Early Nineteenth-Century England (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985), 41-64.
- Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Crime and Punishment, trans. David Magarshack (New York: Penguin Books, 1966), 81-106.

21. Criminal Violence 2

- Hannah Arendt, "The Accused," "An Expert on the Jewish Question," and "The Final Solution: Expulsion." Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (New York: The Viking Press, 1963), 18-31, 32-50, 78-98.
- Beverly Allen, "Facts" and "Analysis." Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996), 41-86, 87-101, and notes.
- Richard Hammer. One Morning in the War: The Tragedy at Son My (New York: Coward-McCann, Inc. 1970), 115-155.

22. Punishment

- Richard A. Bauman, "The Maturing Cognitio: Caligula and Claudius" and "Nero and the Stoics." Crime and Punishment in Ancient Rome (London: Routledge, 1996), 65-76, 77-91, and notes.
- Samuel Y. Edgerton, Jr., "Images of Public Execution." Pictures and Punishment: Art and Criminal Prosecution During the Florentine Renaissance (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985), 126-164.
- Edward Peters, "To Become, or to Remain, Human..." Torture (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996), 141-187.
- Hugh Lewin, "Hangings." Bandiet: Seven Years in a South African Prison (London: Heinemann, 1974), 139-153.

Part IV: Forces of Order and Peace

23. Peaceful Traditional Societies

- Clayton A. Robarchek, "Hobbesian and Rousseauan Images of Man"; Paul Heelas, "Identifying Peaceful Societies." In Societies at Peace: Anthropological Perspectives, ed. Signe Howell and Roy Willis (London: Routledge, 1989), 31-44, 225-243.
- George Park, "Peace and Power in an African Proto-State"; Thomas Gregor, "Symbols and Rituals of Peace in Brazil's Upper Xingu." In The Anthropology of Peace and Nonviolence, ed. Leslie E. Sponsel and Thomas Gregor (Boulder, Col.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1994), 197-211, 241-257.
- Robert Knox Dentan, "The Nonviolent Image and Punan" and "The Problem of Authority." The Semai: A Nonviolent People of Malaya (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968), 55-64, 65-70.

24. Heroic Dissent, Moral Exhortation, and Nonviolence

- Gordon C. Zahn, "Franz Jägerstätter: An Introduction" and "The Commentaries." In Solitary Witness: The Life and Death of Franz Jägerstätter (London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1966), 3-35, 212-244.
- M.K. Gandhi. Non-Violent Resistance (Satyagraha) (New York: Schocken Books, 1951), 77-90.
- Henry David Thoreau, "On the Duty of Civil Disobedience." Walden, or Life in the Woods and On the Duty of Civil Disobedience (New York: The New American Library, 1960), 222-240.
- Jacques Semelin, "The Role of Opinion" and "Which Role for Which Results?" Unarmed Against Hitler: Civilian Resistance in Europe, 1939-1943, trans. Suzan Husserl-Kapit (Westport, Ct.: Praeger, 1993), 89-109, 161-176.
- Martin Luther King, Jr. Letter from the Birmingham Jail (San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1994).

25. The Use of Force and the Threat of Force

- Egon Bittner, "The Functions of the Police in Modern Society"; Jonathan Rubinstein, "Private Information" and "Controlling People." In Policing: A View from the Street, ed. Peter K. Manning and John van Maanen (New York: Random House, 1978), 32-50, 129-140, 255-265.
- George Ivan Smith, "The Apparatus of Repression" and "Consciences of Convenience." Ghosts of Kampala (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980), 113-131, 161-174.
- Robert F. Kennedy. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1968), 1-106.

26. Law, Bureaucracy, and the Search for Tolerable Compromises

- Max Weber, "Bureaucracy" and "Religious Rejections of the World and Their Directions." From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, trans. and ed. H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946), 196-244; 323-359, and notes.

Part V: Conclusion

27. Reflections on Violence and the Human Condition 1
28. Reflections on Violence and the Human Condition 2

Acknowledgments

The following colleagues contributed invaluable suggestions to enrich this syllabus or indispensable technical assistance to bring it to fruition: Beverly Boni, Rebecca Brassard, Michael F. Brown, Shirley Bushika, Donna Chenail, Eric Cohen, Kathleen Crandall, Don DeGrenier, Charles Dew, Ronald Favreau, Samuel Fleischacker, Al Goethals, Duffy Graham, Linda Hall, Janice M. Hirota, Jo-Ann Irace, Yuriko Hirota Jackall, Peter Just, Thomas Kohut, Phyllis Peterson, Francis Oakley, Arthur J. Vidich, Margaret Weyers, and Betty Zimmerberg. Very special thanks to Joan Walling, without whose help the project could not have been completed.

| back |