Violence
Robert Jackall
Class of 1956 Professor of Sociology and Social Thought, Williams College; HFG grantee
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13. Political Violence

- Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. The Communist Manifesto (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).
- Frantz Fanon, "Concerning Violence." The Wretched of the Earth, trans. Constance Farrington (New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1963), 35-106.
- Georges Sorel, "The Ethics of Violence." Reflections on Violence, trans. T. E. Hulme (New York: B.W. Huebsch, 1912), 205-251.
- George Rudé, "The Fall of the Bastille, 14 July 1789." Paris and London in the Eighteenth Century: Studies in Popular Protest (New York: Viking, 1971), 82-95.
- George Rudé, "The Pattern of Disturbance and the Behavior of Crowds." The Crowd in History: A Study of Popular Disturbances in France and England, 1730-1848 (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1964), 237-258.
- Jean Froissart, "The Peasants' Revolt in England (1381)." Chronicles, trans. Geoffrey Brereton (New York: Penguin Books, 1968), 211-230 and notes.

14. Political Murder

- Naphtali Lewis, prefatory material and "The Victim: From Pharsalus to the Ides of March, [48-44 BC]." The Ides of March (Sanibel and Toronto: Samuel Stevens & Co., 1985), 39-87 and notes.
- Franklin L. Ford, "[Political Murders in] Recent Times." Political Murder: From Tyrannicide to Terrorism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995), 299-336 and notes.
- James F. Kirkham, Sheldon G. Levy, and William J. Crotty, "Deadly Attacks on Public Office Holders in the United States" and "Political Violence in the United States." Assassination and Political Violence: A Report to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, vol. 8 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1969), 9-47, 171-241.
- Joseph Bensman, "Social and Institutional Factors Determining the Level of Violence and Political Assassination in the Operation of Society: A Theoretical Discussion." Assassinations and the Political Order, ed. William J. Crotty (New York: Harper & Row, 1972), 345-388.

15. The Violence of Despots

- Tacitus, "The Reign of Terror," "Nero and his Helpers," and "The Burning of Rome." The Annals of Imperial Rome, trans. Michael Grant (New York: Penguin Books, 1956), 198-227, 320-344, 360-367.
- Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, "Gaius (Caligula)." The Twelve Caesars, trans. Robert Graves (New York: Penguin, 1957), 153-184.
- J. M. Thompson, "The Inquisitor." Robespierre, vol. 2: From the Death of Louis XVI to the Death of Robespierre (New York: Howard Fertig, 1968), 144-184.
- Isaac Deutscher, "The Gods Are Athirst." Stalin: A Political Biography (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969), 345-385.

B. Interpersonal Violence

16. Honor and Violence 1

- Homer, "Book I: The Quarrel," "Book XVI: Hector Kills Patroclus," "Book XIX: The Reconciliation," "Book XX: God Fights God," "Book XXI: Achilles at the Ford," "Book XXII: Death of Hector." Iliad, trans. Robert Graves (London: Cassell, 1959), 1-16, 229-247, 278-286, 287-296, 297-310, 311-321.
- William Ian Miller, "Getting a Fix on Violence." Humiliation and Other Essays on Honor, Social Discomfort, and Violence (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993), 53-92 and notes.

17. Honor and Violence 2

- Bertram Wyatt-Brown, "Honor in Literary Perspective," "The Nature of Primal Honor," and "Sexual Honor, Exploitation, and Shame." Honor and Violence in the Old South (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), 3-24, 25-39, 85-115, and notes.
- Dickson D. Bruce, Jr., "Militarism and Violence," "Violence and Southern Oratory." Violence and Culture in the Antebellum South (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1979), 161-177, 178-195, and notes.

18. Antagonisms between the Sexes

- Aeschylus, "Agamemnon." Oresteia, trans. Richmond Lattimore (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953), 33-90.
- Mary R. Lefkowitz, "Seduction and Rape in Greek Myth." In Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, ed. Angeliki E. Laiou (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1993), 17-37.
- Thomas Gregor, "Gender Wars: The Ritual of the Pequi Harvest," "Anxious Pleasures," and "Anxious Dreams." Anxious Pleasures: The Sexual Lives of an Amazonian People (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1985), 117-130, 131-151, 152-161.
- Robert F. Murphy, "Social Structure and Sex Antagonism." Journal of Anthropological Research 42 (1986), 407-416.
- Hanny Lightfoot-Klein, "Episodes and Conversations." Prisoners of Ritual: An Odyssey into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa (New York: Haworth, 1989), 103-165.
- Patricia Pearson, "Medea in Her Modern Guise: The Use of Children as Pawns," "Balancing the Domestic Equation: When Women Assault Their Spouses or Lovers," and "What's Love Got to Do with It?: Women as Partners in Violent Crime." When She Was Bad: Violent Women & the Myth of Innocence (New York: Viking, 1997), 92-113, 114-145, 176-200, and notes.
- Ronet Bachman. Violence Against Women: A National Crime Victimization Survey Report, U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, January 1994.

19. Self-Destructiveness

- Emile Durkheim, "Individual Forms of the Different Types of Suicide." Suicide: A Study in Sociology, trans. John A. Spaulding and George Simpson (Glencoe, Ill.: The Free Press, 1951), 277-294.
- Alfred Alvarez, "Epilogue: Letting Go." The Savage God: A Study of Suicide (New York: Random House, 1970), 267-284.
- Jack Seward, "Seppuku Defined." Hara-Kiri: Japanese Ritual Suicide (Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle, 1968), 13-22.

C. Criminal Violence

20. Criminal Violence 1

- Jack Katz, "Doing Stickup." Seductions of Crime: Moral and Sensual Attractions in Doing Evil (New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1988), 164-194 and notes.
- Robert Jackall, "Uptown Murders." Wild Cowboys: Urban Marauders & the Forces of Order (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997), 101-126 and notes.
- George Rudé, "Criminals." Criminal and Victim: Crime and Society in Early Nineteenth-Century England (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985), 41-64.
- Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Crime and Punishment, trans. David Magarshack (New York: Penguin Books, 1966), 81-106.

21. Criminal Violence 2

- Hannah Arendt, "The Accused," "An Expert on the Jewish Question," and "The Final Solution: Expulsion." Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (New York: The Viking Press, 1963), 18-31, 32-50, 78-98.
- Beverly Allen, "Facts" and "Analysis." Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996), 41-86, 87-101, and notes.
- Richard Hammer. One Morning in the War: The Tragedy at Son My (New York: Coward-McCann, Inc. 1970), 115-155.

22. Punishment

- Richard A. Bauman, "The Maturing Cognitio: Caligula and Claudius" and "Nero and the Stoics." Crime and Punishment in Ancient Rome (London: Routledge, 1996), 65-76, 77-91, and notes.
- Samuel Y. Edgerton, Jr., "Images of Public Execution." Pictures and Punishment: Art and Criminal Prosecution During the Florentine Renaissance (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1985), 126-164.
- Edward Peters, "To Become, or to Remain, Human..." Torture (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996), 141-187.
- Hugh Lewin, "Hangings." Bandiet: Seven Years in a South African Prison (London: Heinemann, 1974), 139-153.

Part IV: Forces of Order and Peace

23. Peaceful Traditional Societies

- Clayton A. Robarchek, "Hobbesian and Rousseauan Images of Man"; Paul Heelas, "Identifying Peaceful Societies." In Societies at Peace: Anthropological Perspectives, ed. Signe Howell and Roy Willis (London: Routledge, 1989), 31-44, 225-243.
- George Park, "Peace and Power in an African Proto-State"; Thomas Gregor, "Symbols and Rituals of Peace in Brazil's Upper Xingu." In The Anthropology of Peace and Nonviolence, ed. Leslie E. Sponsel and Thomas Gregor (Boulder, Col.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1994), 197-211, 241-257.
- Robert Knox Dentan, "The Nonviolent Image and Punan" and "The Problem of Authority." The Semai: A Nonviolent People of Malaya (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968), 55-64, 65-70.

24. Heroic Dissent, Moral Exhortation, and Nonviolence

- Gordon C. Zahn, "Franz Jägerstätter: An Introduction" and "The Commentaries." In Solitary Witness: The Life and Death of Franz Jägerstätter (London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1966), 3-35, 212-244.
- M.K. Gandhi. Non-Violent Resistance (Satyagraha) (New York: Schocken Books, 1951), 77-90.
- Henry David Thoreau, "On the Duty of Civil Disobedience." Walden, or Life in the Woods and On the Duty of Civil Disobedience (New York: The New American Library, 1960), 222-240.
- Jacques Semelin, "The Role of Opinion" and "Which Role for Which Results?" Unarmed Against Hitler: Civilian Resistance in Europe, 1939-1943, trans. Suzan Husserl-Kapit (Westport, Ct.: Praeger, 1993), 89-109, 161-176.
- Martin Luther King, Jr. Letter from the Birmingham Jail (San Francisco: Harper San Francisco, 1994).

25. The Use of Force and the Threat of Force

- Egon Bittner, "The Functions of the Police in Modern Society"; Jonathan Rubinstein, "Private Information" and "Controlling People." In Policing: A View from the Street, ed. Peter K. Manning and John van Maanen (New York: Random House, 1978), 32-50, 129-140, 255-265.
- George Ivan Smith, "The Apparatus of Repression" and "Consciences of Convenience." Ghosts of Kampala (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1980), 113-131, 161-174.
- Robert F. Kennedy. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1968), 1-106.

26. Law, Bureaucracy, and the Search for Tolerable Compromises

- Max Weber, "Bureaucracy" and "Religious Rejections of the World and Their Directions." From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, trans. and ed. H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946), 196-244; 323-359, and notes.

Part V: Conclusion

27. Reflections on Violence and the Human Condition 1
28. Reflections on Violence and the Human Condition 2

Acknowledgments

The following colleagues contributed invaluable suggestions to enrich this syllabus or indispensable technical assistance to bring it to fruition: Beverly Boni, Rebecca Brassard, Michael F. Brown, Shirley Bushika, Donna Chenail, Eric Cohen, Kathleen Crandall, Don DeGrenier, Charles Dew, Ronald Favreau, Samuel Fleischacker, Al Goethals, Duffy Graham, Linda Hall, Janice M. Hirota, Jo-Ann Irace, Yuriko Hirota Jackall, Peter Just, Thomas Kohut, Phyllis Peterson, Francis Oakley, Arthur J. Vidich, Margaret Weyers, and Betty Zimmerberg. Very special thanks to Joan Walling, without whose help the project could not have been completed.

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