Violence
Robert Jackall
Class of 1956 Professor of Sociology and Social Thought, Williams College; HFG grantee
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Part I: The Primal Roots of Violence

1. Animals and Violence

- Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson, "Paradise Lost," "Relationship Violence," "The Price of Freedom," and "Legacies." Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1996), 5-27, 127-152, 153-172, 173-199, and notes.
- Konrad Lorenz, "What Aggression is Good For," "The Spontaneity of Aggression," "Behavioral Analogies to Morality," and "Ecce Homo!" On Aggression, trans. Marjorie Kerr Wilson (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1963), 23-48, 49-57, 23-48, 109-138, 236-274.
- Frans de Waal, "Chimpanzees." Peacemaking Among Primates (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1989), 34-87.

2. Human Biology and Violence

- Roger D. Masters, "Why Study Serotonin, Social Behavior, and the Law?"; Douglas Madsen, "Serotonin and Social Rank Among Human Males"; C. Ray Jeffery, "The Brain, the Law, and the Medicalization of Crime." In The Neurotransmitter Revolution: Serotonin, Social Behavior, and the Law, ed. Roger D. Masters and Michael T. McGuire (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1994), 3-16, 146-158, 161-178.
- Klaus A. Miczek et al., "An Overview of Biological Influences on Violent Behavior." In Understanding and Preventing Violence, vol. 2: Biobehavioral Influences, ed. Albert J. Reiss, Jr., Klaus A. Miczek, and Jeffrey A. Roth (Washington, D. C.: National Academy Press, 1994), 1-20.

Part II: Understanding the Universality of and Fascination with Violence

3. Philosophy and Politics

- Hannah Arendt. On Violence (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1969).

4. Social Science, the Humanities, and Representations of Violence

- Max Weber, "Politics as a Vocation." From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, trans. and ed. H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946), 77-128, and notes.
- David Forgacs, "Fascism, Violence and Modernity"; Michael Minden, "Expressionism and the First World War"; Richard Cork, "Images of Extinction: Paul Nash at the Western Front"; Alison Sinclair, "Disasters of War: Image and Experience in Spain." In The Violent Muse: Violence and the Artistic Imagination in Europe, 1910-1939, ed. Jana Howlett and Rod Mengham (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1994), 5-21, 45-55, 56-64, 77-87, and notes.
- John Fraser, "Introductory," "Ambivalences," and "Concluding." Violence in the Arts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1974), 1-13, 14-39, 152-162, and notes.
- Allen Guttmann, "The Appeal of Violent Sports"; Maria Tatar, "'Violent Delights' in Children's Literature"; J. Hoberman, "'A Test for the Individual Viewer': Bonnie and Clyde's Violent Reception." In Why We Watch: The Attractions of Violent Entertainment, ed. Jeffrey Goldstein (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998), 7-26, 69-87, 116-143, and references 227-253.

Part III: Types and Meanings of Violence

A. Institutionalized and Ideological Violence

5. War and Warriors 1

- Livy, "Cannae." Book XXII, The War with Hannibal: Books XXI-XXX of The History of Rome From Its Foundation, trans. Aubrey de Sélincourt (New York: Penguin Books, 1965), 143-165.
- Paul Varley, "Rise of the Samurai." Samurai (New York: Delacorte, 1970), 47-68, chronology, and map.
- Ivan Morris, "If Only We Might Fall . . . : The Kamikaze Fighters." The Nobility of Failure: Tragic Heroes in the History of Japan (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1975), 276-334 and notes.

6. War and Warriors 2

- Ernst Jünger, "Author's Preface to the English Edition," "Orainville," "Les Eparges," "Guillemont," "The Battle of Cambrai," "The Great Offensive," and "My Last Storm." The Storm of Steel: From the Diary of a German Storm-Troop Officer on the Western Front (New York: Howard Fertig, 1975), ix-xiii; 1, 19-30, 104-110, 221-237, 244-280, 300-319.
- J. Glenn Gray, "The Enduring Appeals of Battle," "The Soldier's Relations to Death," and "Images of the Enemy." The Warriors: Reflections on Men in Battle (New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1970), 25-58, 97-129; 131-169.
- Michelle Z. Rosaldo, "Headhunting: a Tale of 'Fathers,' 'Brothers,' and 'Sons.'" Knowledge and Passion: Ilongot Notions of Self and Social Life (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980), 137-176 and notes.
- Klaus Theweleit, "Men and Women." Male Fantasies, vol. 1:Women, Floods, Bodies, History, trans. Stephen Conway (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987), 3-84, 171-204, and notes.
- William Broyles, Jr., "Why Men Love War." Esquire (November 1984), 55-65.

7. Civil War

- Eric Carlton, "Massacre as Fratricide: The Spanish Civil War." Massacres: An Historical Perspective (Cambridge: Scolar Press, 1994), 97-106.
- Speer Morgan and Greg Michalson, editors, "The [American] Civil War Diary of George Sargent." For Our Beloved Country (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1994), 79-174.

8. Industrialized Violence

- Jean Claude Pressac with Robert-Jan Van Pelt, "The Machinery of Mass Murder at Auschwitz"; Andrzej Strzelecki, "The Plunder of Victims and Their Corpses." In Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp, ed. Yisrael Gutman and Michael Berenbaum (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994), 183-245, 246-266.
- Omer Bartov, "Intellectuals on Auschwitz: Memory, History, and Truth." Murder in Our Midst: the Holocaust, Industrial Killing, and Representation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 115-136 and notes.
- John Hersey. Hiroshima (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946).

9. Ethnic and Racial Savagery 1

- Gérard Prunier, "Rwandese Society and the Colonial Impact: The Making of a Cultural Mythology (1894-1959)" and "Genocide and Renewed War." The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), 1-40, 237-268.
- Fergal Keane, "Bloodlines," "Killers," and "A Chronology of Genocide." Season of Blood: a Rwandan Journey (New York: The Viking Press, 1995), 1-30, 161-183, 193-198.
- Leo Kuper, "The Genocidal State: An Overview." In State Violence and Ethnicity, ed. Pierre L. van den Berghe (Boulder, Col.: University Press of Colorado, 1990), 19-51.
- S. J. Tambiah, "The Horror Story" and "Reflections on Political Violence in Our Time." Sri Lanka: Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), 19-33, 114-128, and notes.

10. Ethnic and Racial Savagery 2

- Captain Frederick Marryat, "Lynch Law.." Diary in America, with Remarks on Its Institutions (New York: Wm. H. Colyer, 1839), 240-247.
- Durward Pruden, "A Sociological Study of a Texas Lynching." Studies in Sociology, vol. 1, 1 (1936), 3-9.
- Mauricio Mazón, "Introduction," "The Zoot-Suit Riots," and "The Symbols, Imagery, and Rhetoric of the Riots." The Zoot-Suit Riots: The Psychology of Symbolic Annihilation (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992), 1-6, 67-77, 78-94, and notes.
- Leonidas E. Hill, "The Pogrom of November 9-10, 1938 in Germany." In Riots and Pogroms, ed. Paul R. Brass (New York: New York University Press, 1996), 89-113.

11. In the Name of God 1

- Maurice Bloch, "Sacrifice." Prey Into Hunter: The Politics of Religious Experience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 24-45 and notes.
- Joshua Prawer, "The Crusade." The World of the Crusaders (London: Weidenfield and Nicolson, 1972), 14-27.
- Henry Charles Lea, "The Inquisitional Process" and "The Stake." A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1888), 405-429, 534-561.

12. In the Name of God 2

- Ken Levi, "A Brief Chronology of Jim Jones and the People's Temple"; John R. Hall, "The Apocalypse at Jonestown"; Jeannie Mills, "Jonestown Masada." In Violence and Religious Commitment: The Implications of Jim Jones's People's Temple Movement, ed. Ken Levi (University Park, Md.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1982), xi-xv, 35-54, 165-173, and notes.
- Dick Anthony and Thomas Robbins, "Religious Totalism, Exemplary Dualism, and the Waco Tragedy." In Millennium, Messiahs, and Mayhem: Contemporary Apocalyptic Movements, ed. Thomas Robbins and Susan J. Palmer (New York: Routledge, 1997), 261-284.

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